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Standard(2-2):HKAS 1 (Revised) Presentation of Financial Statements

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HKAS 1指出準備財務報告的目主要是為了讓不同類型的用家提供不同種類的建議。一份財務報告主要有
1. statement of financial position,
2. statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income
3. statement of changes in equity,
4. statement of cash flows
5. notes
6. comparative information
7. 上年度最初的statement of financial position



其中,statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income可以分為兩部分:首先是profit or loss,之後是other comprehensive income。

如果公司打算提供其他有關公司年度財務表現的解釋,或者正在面對的不確定因素,他們可以列出主要的影響(例如環境上的變化),或者資金來源和目標的負債權益比(ratio of liabilities to equity)

HKAS 1進一步指出財務報告必須遵守HKFRSs的守則,並真實和公正地呈現出公司的財務表現和現金流。公司必須用適當的會計政策,如果公司未能找到合適的HKFRSs來準備財務報告,而遵守HKFRSs只會背離準備財務報告的目的(即真實和公正地呈現出公司的財務表現和現金流),他們必須披露有關訊息(例如管理層確認財務報告已真實和公正地呈現出公司的財務表現和現金流。)

可是,如果準則禁止對某些要求相關的背離,則公司需要披露更多資料,例如準備財務報告的目的未能達到的原因?或公司本身如何與同行不同,令它不能與別的公司一樣能導守某些要求?
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HKAS 1 shows that the main purpose of Financial Statement is to "provide information about the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of an entity that is useful to a wide range of users in making economic decisions.". A full set of Financial Statement includes
1. statement of financial position,
2. statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income
3. statement of changes in equity,
4. statement of cash flows
5. notes
6. comparative information
7. a statement of financial position as at the beginning of the preceding period

Statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income can be split into two sessions, profit or loss part comes first, and then other comprehensive income.

If the entities decide to provide explanation of other financial performance and financial position, or the uncertainties they are facing, they can present the main impact (eg, changes in the environment), or entity's sources of funding and targeted ratio of liabilities to equity.

Furthermore, HKAS 1 tells the entities that they need to follow HKFRSs in order to "present a true and fair view of the financial position, financial performance and cash flows". Entities need to apply the appropriate accounting policies.

In case they fail to do so and conclude that "compliance with a requirement in an HKFRSs would be so misleading that it would conflict with the objective of financial statements set out in the Framework"(ie, "present a true and fair view of the financial position, financial performance and cash flows"), they need to have certain disclosure (eg, that management has concluded that the financial statements present fairly the entity's financial position, financial performance and cash flows)

However, if the departure to some requirements of the standard is prohibited by the regulatory framework, the entity might need to disclose more, eg, the reasons of failure in achieving the objective of financial statements? Or how the entity is different from other entities which can comply the requirement?

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